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宗教领袖和欧洲很多国家都表示对萨达姆死刑的批评  

2006-12-31 12:53:41|  分类: 默认分类 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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宗教领袖和欧洲政治家对萨达拇死刑的反应。当代英国和欧盟国家都不支持死刑,梵蒂冈更把这称为“tragic”,悲剧性的。国际法庭公审塞黑前总统的时候也没有死刑的选择。不错,法国大革命的时代的确有很多绞刑架,墨索里尼也是被绞死的,但是这之后的欧洲并没有停留在那个时代。

布什号称是“再生基督徒”,美国右翼也动辙以宗教信徒的形象示人。美国很多州法也禁止死刑,但布什当州长的德州有死刑。同时一个死刑案要反复上诉以便“不错杀一个”。这里不想讨论死刑是否对错,而是说,如果真是一个基督徒,似乎应该信奉和鼓吹饶恕而不是复仇?我不是基督徒,但是如果有人向我灌输基督教,我也得按照这种思想去要求他。

Around the World, Unease and Criticism of Penalty

By ALAN COWELL
Published: December 31, 2006
LONDON, Dec. 30 — With gradations of unease rather than outrage inspired by the hanging of Saddam Hussein, Western politicians sought a cautious balance on Saturday between revulsion at his record, support for his executioners and concern at the use of a capital penalty they largely shun in their own countries.


Death of the Iraqi Tyrant But religious leaders — Christian and Muslim — used stronger and more critical language in response to the news of Mr. Hussein’s execution, which greeted most Western Europeans on their breakfast time news shows and in some newspaper headlines two days before the New Year.

Perhaps the most delicately choreographed response came from Britain, whose prime minister, Tony Blair, took a lead as America’s closest ally in toppling Mr. Hussein while his Labor Party prides itself on opposing the death penalty.

In a statement issued an hour after the execution, Margaret Beckett, the foreign secretary, said: “I welcome the fact that Saddam Hussein has been tried by an Iraqi court for at least some of the appalling crimes he committed against the Iraqi people. He has now been held to account.”

However, she said, “the British government does not support the use of the death penalty, in Iraq or anywhere else. We advocate an end to the death penalty worldwide, regardless of the individual or the crime. We have made our position very clear to the Iraqi authorities, but we respect their decision as that of a sovereign nation.”

Mr. Blair himself — who faced wide public opposition to the Iraq war, which has shaped his political legacy — refrained from commenting as he vacationed at the Miami waterfront home of Robin Gibb, a singer in the BeeGees. A spokesman for him said Ms. Beckett’s statement had been issued on behalf of the entire government, including Mr. Blair.

The execution also revived the ideological divide between supporters and opponents of the 2003 invasion. Sir Menzies Campbell, leader of the opposition Liberal Democrats, which opposed the war, said: “Saddam Hussein’s death does not vindicate in any way the ill-conceived and disastrous decision to invade Iraq. His execution does not make an illegal war legal any more than it will put an end to the violence and destruction.”

Generally, said the columnist Tim Hames in The Times of London, the response to the execution would be different in Britain and Continental Europe from the reaction in the United States. “Even those of us who supported the invasion in 2003, and continue to do so today,” he wrote, “will harbor within their ranks, like me, those who find the notion of this crime offensive.”

“Mainstream middle-class sentiment in Europe now regards the death penalty as being as ethically tainted as the crimes that produced the sentence,” he added.

Erkki Tuomioja, the foreign minister of Finland, which holds the rotating presidency of the European Union, said, “The European Union has a very consistent stand on opposing the death penalty and it should not have been applied in this case either — even though there is no doubt about Saddam Hussein’s guilt over serious violations against human rights.”

In an editorial, The Guardian newspaper in London took an even more unequivocal position, saying, “The death penalty is an unacceptably cruel and unusual punishment, even in Iraq.”

The Vatican went so far as to call the execution “tragic” — echoing expressions of revulsion by Muslim leaders, both in the West and in the broader Islamic world.

“A capital punishment is always tragic news, a reason for sadness, even if it deals with a person who was guilty of grave crimes,” said the Rev. Federico Lombardi, the Vatican spokesman. “The killing of the guilty party is not the way to reconstruct justice and reconcile society. On the contrary, there is a risk that it will feed a spirit of vendetta and sow new violence.”

Muslim leaders in Britain offered a similar prognosis. Muhammad Abdul Bari, the secretary general of the Muslim Council of Britain, said in a statement, “No one can deny that Saddam should have faced justice for his crimes against the people of Iraq and also his invasion of Iran and Kuwait.”

“However,” he added, “the fact that his trial took place while Iraq is still under occupation by foreign forces may mean that his execution, on the blessed day of Id al-Adha, will be regarded as an insensitive and provocative act by the U.S.-backed Iraqi government and that far from contributing to a so-called healing process, it may serve to further intensify the sectarian divisions in Iraq.”

In Russia, the Foreign Ministry strongly criticized the execution, expressing regret that Iraqi officials disregarded international appeals not to carry it out. A spokesman, Mikhail L. Kamynin, expressed concern that Mr. Hussein’s execution would worsen already deathly tensions consuming Iraq.

“The situation in Iraq is developing negatively,” Mr. Kamynin said in a statement. “The country is sinking into violence and is effectively on the brink of a wide-scale civil conflict.”

Mr. Hussein’s execution, he went on, “may further aggravate the military-political situation and increase ethnic and religious tensions.”

President Vladimir V. Putin made no statement, but other political leaders reacted even more harshly than the Foreign Ministry did. A small group of protesters from the Liberal Democratic Party picketed outside the Iraqi Embassy in Moscow, while the party’s leader, Vladimir V. Zhirinovsky, a vocal supporter of Mr. Hussein and his rule, called the execution “the crime of the 21st century.”

Mr. Zhirinovsky’s party was accused of profiting from the sale of Iraqi oil during the United Nations sanctions program. His remarks were shown on state television.

Gennadi A. Zyuganov, the Communist Party leader, suggested in remarks to Ekho Moskvy, a Moscow radio station, that the United States would be associated with the execution, even if Iraqis oversaw his trial and death sentence. “Unfortunately, Texan law prevailed,” he said, “the rule of the strong, the evil and the unprincipled.”

Other nations, like India, voiced regret. The Indian foreign minister Pranab Mukherjee said: “We had already expressed the hope that the execution would not be carried out. We are disappointed that it has been. We hope that this unfortunate event will not affect the process of reconciliation, restoration of peace and normalcy in Iraq.”

In Israel, an old enemy of Mr. Hussein’s, leaders reacted calmly but with satisfaction at the execution.

Shimon Peres, the deputy prime minister, told Israeli public radio: “Saddam Hussein brought about his own demise. This was a man who caused a great deal of harm to his people and who was a major threat to Israel.”

Ephraim Sneh, the deputy defense minister, noted that Mr. Hussein had fired 39 Scud missiles “into the heart of Israel” during the Persian Gulf war in 1991. Mr. Hussein, he said, was “a man who paid some $20,000 to the families of suicide bombers in Israel during the most intense time of the intifada and who was preparing a nuclear weapon to use against us.”

In 1981, Israeli warplanes destroyed the Osirak nuclear reactor near Baghdad just before it was to go on line, after intelligence showed that Mr. Hussein was striving to build a nuclear weapon.

Israel also strongly supported the American-led invasion in 2003 that overthrew Mr. Hussein, who was considered a major threat to begin a tank invasion against Israel and had rejected the idea of peace with Israel.

Mr. Sneh also warned that the execution could lead to “a reinforcement of the Iranian influence in Iraq and a spilling over into Jordan and Israel of Iraqi terrorism.”

The radical Islamic Hamas movement, however, condemned the execution as a “political assassination” that “violates all international laws,” according to a spokesman, Fawzi Barhum, speaking to Agence France-Presse in Gaza. Hamas, which was supported by Mr. Hussein, does not accept Israel’s right to exist and has a legislative majority in the Palestinian legislature.

“Saddam Hussein was a prisoner of war,” Mr. Barhum said. He called the trial “unjust” and said the timing of the execution, a half-day before the start of the Muslim feast of Id al-Adha, was insulting. “The hanging took place on the day of the Id and this is a message to the Arab street — the Americans have launched threats to all the Arabs,” he said.


Steven Erlanger in Jerusalem and Steven Lee Myers in Moscow contributed reporting.

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